How the separator works

Most agricultural enterprises need farm machinery to ensure yield and bring the product to a state suitable for further sale or processing. Modern grain separators can meet the needs of farmers for cleaning and sorting the harvested crop.

What is a grain separator?

It is a device (machine) used for separation (from Latin "dissociation"). This process is necessary for cleaning and sorting (grading) the harvested crop. Depending on separator settings, it is possible to sort the product according to size, density, weight and other parameters. A combine is able to perform primary cleaning during grain harvesting, while separator is required for further processing (in some cases it is used as a separate device, while in others it goes as part of the ZAV grain-cleaning complex). It helps to arrange quality processing and to divide the collected sheaf into:

  • food grain;
  • seed material;
  • forage;
  • waste.

There are simple and complex models that differ in size and functionality. Depending on the final purpose and type of material being processed, one of the following types of separators can be chosen:

  • sieve separator;
  • air separator;
  • indented cylinder separator;
  • aspiration separator;
  • aerodynamic separator.

To bring together the advantages of several types of separators, they can be combined into a ZAV grain-cleaning complex.

ASM grain separator

The Aerodynamic Separating Machine (ASM) is one of the most in-demand types of modern separators. This equipment allows for primary and secondary processing of products, based on the weight of a grain crop unit.

ASM components:

  • bunker (supplies material for processing);
  • separating chamber (for cleaning process);
  • impeller;
  • sorting containers.

The sheaf gets into the bunker, where, under the gravity force, it goes down and enters the separating chamber through the impeller. After filtering and immediately separating heavy impurities (like gravel), it falls into the first sorting container. The grain continues to go down under the air flow, divided into seeding and production forage and separated from the light impurities (see figure).


Only one run is enough to clean the crop properly and divide it into three main fractions. This type of equipment perfectly manages the work intended for a number of other separator types (sieve, air, etc.).

High performance, easy handling and maximum efficiency are the main advantages of all ASM models.

Starting grain separator

Cleaning the crops with ASM grain separators

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of separation for any harvested agricultural crop. The harvested material contains about 20% of impurities, which should be separated before using the crop for industrial and other purposes.

Using ASM it is possible to clean the sheaf of the following types of impurities:

  • Organic. Husk, weeds, straw, remains of insects, etc. They not only have no nutritional value (both for animals and cattle), but also can be dangerous to health. In addition, some organic impurities may not have the best effect on the seed material, impairing the seed viability. This category includes spoiled raw materials, which are also subject to separation - damaged crops, insect spoilage, sprouted grain, etc.
  • Mineral. Sand, dust, gravel and other heavy impurities. They not only can affect and worsen the nutritional value of the processed product, but can also cause malfunctions or breakdowns of other equipment, for example, grain grinders.
  • Androgenic. This kind includes all the other wastes found on the fields, for example, wind-borne paper, packing film, etc. (any life wastage products). Even the most well-managed fields are not always protected from androgenic wastes on seeded areas.

It should be noted that during ASM separation the products get rid of excess moisture, along with the calibration and cleaning. Since the level of moisture, as well as impurities, is regulated by the standards of Ukraine, it is important to obtain raw materials of the necessary humidity after separation (for example, grain moisture for cattle feeding and seeding should not exceed 18%).

The process and importance of cleaning the agricultural crops with ASM grain separators will become more obvious if we have a closer look at it in the context of each of the types of products.


Sunflower seeds purification


Pea purification


Soy purification/h3>


Corn purification


Rape purification


Millet purification


Rice purification


Grain purification


Advantages of using ASM separators

  1. Additional waste bunker (open the shutter outside working hours).
  2. Loading bunker (complete with a dust flue).
  3. Air outlets.
  4. Aspiration chamber cover.
  5. Power supply unit.
  6. ASM separator.
  7. Aspiration chamber.
  8. Trays.
  9. Power supply cabinet.
  10. Grain feeder complete with a dust flue.
  11. Clean regularly.

The advantages of ASM aerodynamic separators may include the following facts:

  • Reliability. Only the best materials are used for this simple and high-quality assembly, ensuring its reliability and durability (with proper use, according to recommendations and with regular maintenance).
  • Economical efficiency. ASM is able to replace several separators of other types due to combining the features of crop cleaning, calibration and drying.
  • Productivity. May change depending on the model – the most powerful ASMs can process up to 200 tons of grain per hour.
  • Multi-purpose design. One ASM can be used for post-harvest processing of almost all grain and grain legume crops (most analogs are designed for processing only one crop).
  • Efficiency. The germination of crops obtained after cleaning and calibration equals to 98% and less.
  • Delicate impact. The design of this device allows keeping the processed grains undamaged even after the second run or even after.

The possibility of using ASM aerodynamic separators in ZAV complexes can be considered as another advantage.

Soy is a very popular grain legume crop used as food, fodder or industrial material. It is grown in the largest share of crop area in the world.

The most difficult stage of soy harvesting is a post-harvest processing - its soft shell, high oiliness and the need to preserve the integrity of each product piece require the most delicate cleaning methods.

ASM separators have a special mode for soy processing. Thus, the whole and undamaged beans can be delivered to storage after cleaning. This also allows extending the storage time (broken and damaged soy beans are prone to fungus attacks).

Due to the proficient calibration, it is possible to sort the beans into fractions for further processing, use and seeding.

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