Back

Grain cleaning machine - types, operating principle, advantages of application

LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY "Zavod KharkovAgromash" offers you grain cleaning machines at affordable prices. Our company designs and produces grain cleaning equipment, so we can offer you a wide range of grain cleaning and seed preparation equipment.

Why do we need grain cleaning?

It is necessary to prepare the grain for its further use for food and industrial purposes. Normally, the newly harvested material called sheaf contains up to 20% of various impurities. These impurities can be divided into three groups:

  • Mineral. This category includes sand, gravel, dust and metal particles. They worsen the nutrition, feed and seed value and can be dangerous for certain equipment, such as grain grinders.
  • Organic. They include grain husks, straw, weed seeds, pest insects, pest eggs and remains. A large number of such impurities can be dangerous to livestock and human health, and worsens the seed germination. They also include grains that fall below the standards - for example, damaged, sprouted or pest-infected grains.
  • Androgenic. This is a regular waste, mostly from poorly maintained fields, brought by the wind. Can get into the sheaf during harvesting.

In addition to impurities, it is necessary to remove excess moisture from the grain. For example, the moisture should be decreased to at least 18% or even less to use the grain at least for seeding and cattle feeding. The moisture and impurity content are regulated by the standards of Ukraine.

Kinds of grain cleaning machines

Grain cleaning machines are also called separators. They can be divided into two types:

  • simple;
  • complex.

Simple machines divide the sheaf into two parts by a specific parameter - for example, size and shape. Such equipment can remove the following impurities:

  • light impurities;
  • heavy impurities;
  • hard-separable impurities.

Hard-separable impurities include wastes that resemble normal grains in size, shape and density. These are mostly seeds of various weeds or poor-quality grains of the main crop. Most of the light and heavy impurities get removed during the preliminary and primary cleaning. Secondary cleaning is required to complete the process and get rid of hard-separable impurities.

Complex separators are often represent a combination of several simple ones and can separate several types of impurities simultaneously, as well as separate the grain into fractions.

Cleaning methods

Nowadays, the following methods are used:

  • Preliminary cleaning. This method usually involves simple sieve separators with large sieve openings, as well as gravel separators. They are used in regions with stony soil - the crop harvested in such places often contains a lot of pebbles, gravel, etc.
  • Primary cleaning. The method involves complex separators combining sieving and air systems. The air removes light impurities well, while the sieve filters out the rest.
  • Secondary cleaning. Depending on the nature of the impurity, you need to choose equipment that is able to separate them from the grain. Usually, this method involves indented cylinder separators and gravity tables. They cleanse the grain crop by grain length and aerodynamic properties. Magnetic separators are used to remove small metal particles. This stage also includes grain separation into food and seeds.

As a result of secondary cleaning, the content of impurities should not exceed 1%. To achieve this result, it is necessary to maintain an entire park of various expensive equipment, and spend a lot of time. Fortunately, now we have aerodynamic grain cleaning machines available on the market - they can cope with this task more easily and quickly.

Aerodynamic separator

сюда картинка

This equipment consists of:

  • feeding hopper;
  • separation chamber;
  • impeller;
  • sorting containers.

After the grain pours out of the hopper, it instantly falls into the airflow from the impeller (installed with an inclination towards the other end of the chamber).

The air blows out all the light impurities - dust, straw, ryegrass, etc., while the heavy ones - like gravel - simply fall down. The grain mass keeps falling, getting rid of foreign substances, as well as of the poor-quality grain. In addition, it automatically undergoes separation - sorting into seed, food and feed material. Thus, the aerodynamic grain cleaning machine can perform preliminary, primary and secondary cleaning in one run, as well as a complete separation into three fractions.

Since weight is the main criterion of grain quality, this processing method manages well even with cases of hard-separable impurities, which usually require designated machinery.

Advantages

сюда картинка

The advantages of using our grain cleaning machines:

  • Economical efficiency. Instead of several grain cleaning machines, it is sufficient to use only one. In addition, it uses less power than a typical sieving machine.
  • Reliability. Our products have simple design and high-quality assembly, which ensures a long and trouble-free operation.
  • Efficiency. The most powerful models are capable of processing up to 200 tons of grain per hour, producing seeds with a germination of up to 98% and minimal impurity content.
  • Multi-purpose design. Classical grain cleaning machines can only work with one type of grain crops. To load them with something else, you will need to make a complicated replacement - of sieves, for example.

Aerodynamic separators can work with any grain crops and seeds - you just need to set the desired mode.

Ordering grain cleaning machines from us, you'll get free delivery across Ukraine, as well as free trainings and instructions for your employees and free commissioning.